Paper Mache Clay

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The recipe for paper mache clay

  • 1 1/4 cups damp toilet paper
  • 1 cup premixed drywall joint compound in a plastic tub (but not DAP brand joint compound)
  • 3/4 cup Elmer’s Glue-All or any PVA glue
  • 1/2 to 1 cup white flour (adjustable)
  • 2 tablespoons mineral oil (optional)

Note: If you have a kitchen scale, you can use this recipe with gram measurements.

What does it look like when it’s dry?

Paper Mache Clay Deer HeadGood question.

If you’d like to see what your sculpture might look like when you use this recipe, I finished most of my sculpture and mask patterns with it, or with a combination of this recipe and traditional paper strips and paste.

Yes, I do sometimes use both. The clay doesn’t like covering the sharp edges of ears, and it’s easier to wind narrow strips of paper and paste around long thin shapes, like the wire inside bird legs.

For everything else, I use paper mache clay or one of the variations of this recipe.

Why I Created the Recipe for Paper Mache Clay:

Ten years ago I became frustrated with traditional paper strips and paste. I couldn’t get fine details, like I could when sculpting with real clay. It took too much time to add all those layers of paper mache. And it was messy.

But I wanted to sculpt, and paper mache was the only affordable option.

That’s why I created this original (and still my favorite) recipe for paper mache clay. 

  • It’s affordable.
  • It uses common ingredients that you can find at your local DIY store or Walmart.
  • And it helps you create beautiful sculptures that you can be proud of. This is not the kind of paper mache you made back in grade school!

I put this recipe for paper mache clay on this blog and on YouTube about ten years ago. It has now been used by millions of people around the world, and I get emails and comments every day from people who tell me they love it!

How do you use it?

You use a knife to apply paper mache clay in a really thin layer over your armature, almost like frosting a cake.  You only need a very thin layer, because it dries hard and strong, even with as little as 1/8″ applied to your sculpture. 

How long will it last?

Once the material is completely dry, painted and sealed, it will last for years.

When it’s still in the bowl, it will last several days if you cover it tightly to keep it from drying out. Put it in the fridge if you can’t use it again for a week or two, because the organic materials in the recipe can attract mold while it’s still wet. If you want it to last longer, put it in the freezer, and it will last indefinitely. 

Can you sand it?

Yes, but I almost never do. Paper mache clay dries really hard, and sanding it is a pain in the rear. Plus, you need to wear a mask, because you don’t want the fine powder in your lungs.

And you probably want to do it outside, because that fine dust will go all over your house.

What do I do instead? I use drywall joint compound, which I always have on hand because it’s one of the main ingredients of the recipe. To see exactly how I do it, watch my video that shows you how to make paper mache smooth without sanding.

(And yes, it works with traditional paper strips and paste, too.)

When I really have to sand my paper clay I use my little electric sander.

Are there other options?

Yes, there are two other alternative recipes, and many people actually prefer them. Go ahead and try them all, and see which one you like best.

  1. If you live in a humid environment and you worry about mold and mildew, or if you’re allergic to gluten, check out the new recipe for paper mache clay without flour. It takes another small appliance to make it, but the final product works just as well as the original recipe on this page.
  2. If you like to create fine details, the way you might if you were using real clay or polymer clay, try the silky-smooth air dry clay recipe. It uses the same ingredients, plus corn starch, but there’s less paper in the mix so it’s great for detailed textures and details. Many readers have also used it in small silicone molds for jewelry, and they say it works well. I haven’t tried that yet, myself, so do some experiments to see if it works for you.

How to make paper mache clay:

Bowls and mixer for paper mache clay/

You’ll need several large bowls, some measuring cups, a spoon and an electric mixer.

Supplies for making paper mache clay.

The supplies you need for paper mache clay are:

Elmer’s Glue-All, or any PVA glue. Most white glue will work. The Clear Glue from the Elmer’s company also works.

Drywall joint compound – any brand except DAP. That brand doesn’t work because it turns into rubber when mixed with glue.

I buy my joint compound at Walmart. It works great for this recipe, and it’s much less expensive than most brands.

If you aren’t sure what joint compound is called in your country, click here.

Note: There is a warning on the joint compound container that says you should wear a mask when you sand it because it contains silica. Silica is a very hard mineral (most sand is made out of silica) and you don’t want the fine powder in your lungs. I never sand paper mache clay myself, but if you do, be sure to wear a mask. (You should wear a mask when you sand anything!)

To make your paper mache clay smooth without sanding, watch this video.

White flour. The flour thickens the paper mache by soaking up the water. If you can’t use the flour for any reason, you’ll want to use this variation of the paper mache clay recipe instead.

Toilet paper. Any brand will work, so buy the cheapest brand you can find.

Some people use recycled paper instead. In fact, ever since the toilet paper shortage in early 2020, more and more people have made the recipe with old newspapers or the brown paper that Amazon.com uses inside it’s cartons. The texture of the final mix may be slightly different, but recycled paper works just fine. To see a video about using recycled paper in paper mache clay, click here.

Mineral oil (baby oil) or linseed oil – this is totally optional. The oil changes the ‘feel’ of the paper mache clay while you’re working with it, but the recipe works just fine without it. Don’t use boiled linseed oil if children will be helping you with your sculpture, because it contains chemicals.

Step 1: Soak and measure your paper.

Soaking toilet paper for paper mache clay.

The first thing we need to do is get our paper ready. We want about a cup and a quarter of wet paper. You can use any cup to measure with – it doesn’t have to be exact.

Put the paper in hot water to get it wet, and press it down into a measuring cup until you have about a cup and a quarter of wet paper. Then put it back in the hot water. You want all the paper fibers to be separated. Just swirl the paper around with your fingers and the toilet paper will completely fall apart.

Step 2: Press out the water.

You want to press most of the water out of the paper, but you have to be really careful that you don’t press out too much.

If you press out so much of the water that it’s almost dry, it won’t fall apart when you run your mixer. You’ll end up with big globs and bumpy lumps in your paper mache clay.

So go ahead and test it in your hand. Can you push it around and have it come apart, even though most of the water has been pressed out? Then you’re good to go.

Step 3: Add joint compound and glue to the paper mache clay mixture.

Now you can add the drywall joint compound and glue, and start mixing.

What is drywall joint compound? This product is made for the construction industry when they build interior walls. The joint compound is used to cover the edges between two sheets of drywall (also called gypsum board, plaster board and sheet rock). You’ll find it in the paint department at Walmart, or in any DIY store.

If you live in a country where they don’t make flat walls out of plasterboard or drywall, you won’t be able to find drywall joint compound in your stores.

A lot of people ask me, “Can you make paper mache clay without drywall joint compound?” No, you can’t – this recipe requires the joint compound.

If you can’t find the joint compound in your country or if you don’t want to use it, this site has projects that use the traditional paper mache mixture of softened paper and paste.

Mix your paper, joint compound and glue for several minutes. You want the mixer to tear all of the paper fibers apart so it’ll be nice and smooth.

Step 4: Add the flour.

Add flour to the paper mache clay mixture.

You’re going to use the white flour to thicken the paper mache clay. The flour soaks up the excess water in the mixture, and makes it easier to spread the paper mache or create sculpted details.

The amount of flour you need depends on how you want to use your paper mache clay, and how much water was left in the paper. Just keep adding more until you get the consistency you want.

For instance, if you want a really thin layer like I use when I’m covering my mask patterns, or when I want to create a hard solid surface with my first layer, I’ll use a  small amount of flour to make a really thin mixture of the paper mache clay.

Snowy owl made with paper mache clay.But when I want to add texture, or if I want to actually sculpt with the paper mache clay like I did with my snowy owl, then I’ll add more flour.

A note about the beaters: I add 1/2 cup of flour to start with, using the standard beaters. When I need more flour, I’ll switch to the dough hooks.

My mixer didn’t come with the dough hooks, like this one does, but I use some old ones I have from another mixer, and they fit.

If you don’t have the bread-mixing beaters, the paper mache clay has a tendency to crawl up the standard beaters. The mixture will also become very heavy, and could burn out the motor in a small mixer if you use the standard beaters.

Another option is to mix the flour in by hand.

An alternative to a kitchen mixer: If you need to mix up a lot of the paper mache at one time, perhaps for a workshop or a very large project, you can use a paint mixer attachment for an electric drill instead of a of a kitchen mixer, and a plastic pail instead of a bowl.

Step 5: Apply your paper mache clay to your armature.

Use a knife to spread a thin layer of paper mache clay over your armature. If you’ll be using the paper mache clay to add finer details, it’s easiest if you put on a thin layer first and let it dry. Then you have a solid surface for your final sculpting.

Almost any of the projects on this site can be made with paper mache clay. You’ll find them all in the Art Library.  There’s a link to that page at the top of the site, so you can always come back to it. That’s also where you’ll find other recipes, like the smooth air dry clay and the paper mache clay without flour.

For a fast start on a project, choose one of  my mask and sculpture patterns. Any of the patterns can be used with either paper strips and paste or this paper mache clay recipe.

Have fun!

DIY paper mache clay recipe

4,942 thoughts on “Paper Mache Clay”

  1. Hello,

    I was wondering if I make this recipe with a mixer, will I be able to safely use the mixer for food again or should I use a completely separate mixer? I have a project for school that I want to make but I most likely wont be using the recipe again so I did not want to buy a separate mixer for one use.

    Thank you.

    Reply
    • Hi Janice. The paper mache clay will wash off with soap and water. The hardest part to clean out is the hole where the beaters are attached, but if you’re only doing it once that won’t take that long. I use mine in the studio all the time, so I have a separate mixer for the kitchen.

      Reply
  2. Jonni, thank you so much for sharing this recipe! I have been using this with my Junior High and High School art classes to makes masks and we love it! I honestly think this may be one of my new favorite mediums to work with. I would love to share a picture with you.

    One questions, should it be sealed with gesso/medium/other before painting?

    Reply
    • Hi Katie. We would love to see your students’ work – and your work, too. You can share photos on the Daily Sculptors page.

      You don’t need to seal the paper mache clay before painting, but gesso will make the acrylic paints look brighter, and if you use acrylic gesso you won’t need to use as much paint because it won’t sink into the dried clay. It’s sometimes nice to paint directly onto the dried paper mache clay, because you can often get an ‘organic’ look that isn’t easy to get if the clay is sealed first. It’s really up to the artist.

      Reply
  3. You are clearly the queen of paper mache. I made 2 batches of the clay today and it’s kind of stringy…like I can see tp fibers sticking up…wrong tp or did I not soak it long enough? I’m trying to figure this out so I can use it with my middle schoolers. Limited kiln access

    Reply
    • You might need to mix it longer. It takes time for all the fibers to come apart. When it’s mixed enough, you should be able to spread it in a thin layer over an armature and see just a bit of texture.

      Reply
    • No, I haven’t tried it. The materials in the recipe dry very white, so any pigment you add will get washed out and become pastel. It shouldn’t hurt the clay, though, so go ahead and try it.

      Reply
  4. Good evening,
    I’m using this to make a small figurine. I tried this with recipe with a cup of flour, and elmer’s clear glue. I’m worried about the texture of the clay. Is it supposed to be so sticky? Should I have used another wood glue instead?

    Reply
    • I didn’t use toilet paper either, just some torn up scrap paper that I ended up blending. I have so much of that lying around. Either way, I guess I’m too worried about the texture. I understand that it was really meant to be smoothed over surfaces, not to sculpt. I was thinking I would be able to mold together some simple mounds to the armature to add a bit of tone to the figure.
      I will see how this works out. Thank you for the recipe.

      Reply
      • Hi Eva. The paper mache clay recipe is supposed to be sticky, because it replaces paper strips and paste. It is used over an armature in thin layers, and it has to stick to the armature. It can be made less sticky by adding some corn starch, but you’ll get a smoother material if you use the air dry clay recipe instead. That recipe is also intended to be used over an armature, and it won’t dry all the way through if it’s used too thickly. But it can be built up in layers.

        Reply
        • Thank you so much! I will check out the other recipe. I think that may be more along the lines of what I am looking for.

          Reply
  5. Hey Jonni, Ive been looking around for the ProForm All Purpose Ready Mix Joint Compound and can only find it at Walmart, I was wondering if I could use All-Purpose Pre-Mixed Joint Compound USG Beadex Brand instead?

    A few years ago I made you paper mache bear head for my husband and it turned out amazing and he loved it. This year I tried creating your wolf head and do to my error it turned out like crap, so Im going to start over and make another one.

    Right now I am working on a Goddess Brigid sculpture with a oak tree on a small platform and have used a clay mixture of corn starch, baking soda, and water and I love the look of it but hate the grit feeling when it drys on my hands. Im excited to try your clay mixture. Hope your holidays were splendid.

    Reply
    • Hi Richelle. I can only find the ProForm joint compound at Walmart, too. I haven’t tried the USG brand (it isn’t sold in our local stores) but it should work. Almost any brand except DAP works.

      I hope you’ll let us see your goddess when she’s done. And your wolf, too, when your next one is finished. Have fun with both of them. 🙂

      Reply
  6. Hi Jonni,
    I have two questions with this being my first time to use one of your claysz, I would like to make a stone wall for a stable for my hallmark reindeer. I have to hold up a glass shelf so I am supporting it with styrofoam. Would one of the clays work covering styrofoam? I want to make it look like stone walls and pillars and adding wood details. Then wreaths etc.
    The other question (sorry I didn’t see it asked in other comments. About how much toilet paper if you don’t have a scale. Certain # of sheets or half a roll? Any way to judge without a scale?
    Thank you in advance. I’m very excited to try this

    Reply
    • Hi Nancy. The recipe on this page for paper mache clay is sticky enough to hold onto Styrofoam. It also has a nice texture that works well for stones. The recipe calls for 1 1/4 cup of wet toilet paper, measured after most of the water has been squeezed out. Have fun!

      Reply
  7. I need to make a large ball to match existing wood balls. It needs to last forever! Is this possible? I thought to seal wood ball well with plastic as a separator , lay something at middle circumference to cut it apart against. Thoughts would be much appreciated. Otherwise I’ll have to use plaster i guess but would prefer not to. Thanx, Marci

    Reply
    • The paper mache clay will last a long time, but I don’t know about forever. If you’re thinking of using the paper mache clay the way you describe, it will probably crack as it dries. It shrinks a little, and that will cause it to crack when used over a solid base. If I was doing it, I’d use your method up to the point of covering it with something, and then I’d use a few layers of plaster cloth. Once the plaster hardens, the two sides could be slipped off the wooden ball and covered with a very thin layer of the paper mache clay to give you a nice smooth surface. Because it would be hollow, it could crack if dropped, of course. Have fun with it!

      Reply
  8. Was wondering if this can be used in a mold? Will it capture the details?
    I have a plastic snow mold I want to use to create a quick gnome I can then customize.

    I tried a recipe I found elsewhere using flour (basically a recipe with no joint compound because at the time all I could find was that blasted dap stuff lol) and it took the details really well but the object in the mold started going moldy on the second day. I took it outside to sit in the hot summer sun and it stayed wet and got fuzzy (and smelly) by the third and I had to throw it all out, which is why when I saw flour in this recipe, I got a bit apprehensive.

    Reply
    • Hi Tanya. This recipe has too much texture to capture the fine details of a mold, but the air dry clay recipe works well. It will shrink, though, so it’s probably best in small silicone molds. It may not work well in bigger molds, but it’s sure worth a try. You can find that recipe here. But that one uses drywall joint compound, too. I buy my non-DAP joint compound at Walmart. 🙂

      Reply
      • Thanks for the quick rely! 🙂
        I actually managed to finally find non dap joint compound recently (not at walmart though, all they carry here is dap).
        I was actually thinking of going with the air dry recipe anyway. I don’t mind if it shrinks…so long as i can get it out of the mold before that happens. It will be an experiment. 🙂

        Reply
  9. I tried the recipe today for the first time. I can’t find pre-mixed joint compound so I got some powdered stuff and mixed it up to add. The mix is way too soft but thats ok for now as I’m using it over armature and WITH cloth to acheive a certain look on my dog sculptures. However, I read another comment about it being too watery to sculpt and got my answer: add more flower since I do need to actually sculpt details on the dogs: feet, face etc. I will give that a go later. I put my dogs in the oven on the lowest setting with the fan on last night to help with drying as its winter and I dont have a fan or a radiant heater to put them in front of. It worked fine. Thanks for sharing your recipe!

    Reply
  10. Thank you Jonni for all the trouble you take, to make us better artists.
    unfortunately, with the best of will, I can’t possibly review the 4,911 thoughts on “Paper Mache Clay”!
    Here is my question : I plan to use pigments in the mix. Should they come in addition to the listed components or maybe come as a replacement for the flour ? Any indication on how to use them ? And first of all,is it a good idea ?
    Thanks and regards
    Pierre Chirouze

    Reply
    • Hi Pierre. I believe you would just add them in addition to the other ingredients, but dry pigments might soak up some of the liquid in the mix. You’d need to test it. The whiteness of the other ingredients, especially the drywall joint compound, should be considered. If you like how it works, please let us know.

      Reply
  11. Would this recipe stick to canvas? I want to use it to create about 1/3 of an inch thick 3-D ridges under a painting instead of using a texture medium.

    Thank you!

    Reply
    • Hi Julia – it will stick, but I don’t know if it will come unstuck when the canvas flexes after the paper mache clay is dry. In other words, I think it will work but you’ll want to do some tests before investing a lot of time in your project. Good luck with it! 🙂

      Reply
    • No, paper mache of any kind is not waterproof. Some people have good luck with Flex Seal, but I haven’t tried it so I can’t say for sure it will always work. I did try marine varnish, and it cracked in the sun and the next time it rained my sculpture was ruined.
      Have you seen the gnome videos? The gnome was built much like the paper mache sculptures on this site, but without using paper mache as the final layer. You can see the final result (and links to the how-to videos) here.

      Reply
  12. Hi there! We did everything as directed and ours is way too wet not sculptable at all. Would adding flour help do you think? Thanks for any advice you’re able to offer.

    Reply
    • Yes, you can add as much flour as you need to make it the consistency that you want. I like mine really wet so I can spread it thinly over an armature, but when sculpting details I add more flour.

      Reply
        • Violet, I hope you know that the paper mache clay dries as hard as a rock – if you’re letting your guests hit the piñata, it will be difficult to break. But when it does break, it could send hard pieces through the air. I don’t usually recommend using the paper mache clay for piñatas, but I haven’t actually tried it. Please let us know how yours turns out.

          Reply
  13. Hi Joni!
    I’m starting to fear that I messed up somewhere… it’s been over 24 hours and it’s still not dry. In fact, it’s feels like I just put it on even though it’s been sitting for 24 hours. What’s the normal drying time if you are simply air drying?

    Reply
    • It depends on the temperature of the room, how thickly it was applied, and how humid it is. But it will take several days to dry all the way through, even with a thin layer. Would it be possible to put it in front of a fan or over a heating vent?

      Reply
  14. Hi Jonni, I am just creating my first paper mache figure and have to say I’m enjoying myself. The first layer of clay seems very fibrous. Is this normal? I can’t seem to get it to go on smoothly.

    Reply
  15. Thanks to COVID, We all went through the fear of toilet paper shortages last winter. As we head into another season, I’m wondering if you have ever used any raw cellulose or pulp from an industrial source in place of toilet paper?

    Reply
    • Hi Michael. I’m certainly stocking up on TP, and a lot of other things, as we head into winter. I’ll still be using some of it for the paper mache clay, though, because I don’t have access to any cellulose except for the insulation bales. The cellulose insulation available here has boron added for fire safety and anti-fungal properties, and boron mixed with PVA glue creates a mixture similar to Flubber. That doesn’t work for paper mache cly. If you can get hold of some raw cellulose that’s just paper, go ahead and try it. I can’t see why it wouldn’t work.

      Reply
    • It’s air dry, but if you’re in a hurry you can put it in the oven. Don’t bake it over 200°F, though. It actually dries faster if you put it in front of a fan.

      Reply
  16. I have made a number of sculptures that start with a lightweight cardboard and newspaper, followed by covering with masking tape. i then cover with a thin layer (or two) of drywall joint compound, and let it dry. Amazingly lightweight and paintable. If you want it smoother, I got a tip from a professional drywall repairman: instead of sanding his drywall joint compound smooth, he gently goes over it with a damp sponge. No dust! He has asthma, which is how he came to create this technique.

    Reply

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