Paper Mache Clay

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The recipe for paper mache clay

  • 1 1/4 cups damp toilet paper
  • 1 cup premixed drywall joint compound in a plastic tub (but not DAP brand joint compound)
  • 3/4 cup Elmer’s Glue-All or any PVA glue
  • 1/2 to 1 cup white flour (adjustable)
  • 2 tablespoons mineral oil (optional)

Note: If you have a kitchen scale, you can use this recipe with gram measurements.

What does it look like when it’s dry?

Paper Mache Clay Deer HeadGood question.

If you’d like to see what your sculpture might look like when you use this recipe, I finished most of my sculpture and mask patterns with it, or with a combination of this recipe and traditional paper strips and paste.

Yes, I do sometimes use both. The clay doesn’t like covering the sharp edges of ears, and it’s easier to wind narrow strips of paper and paste around long thin shapes. For everything else, I use paper mache clay or one of the variations of this recipe.


Why I Created the Recipe for Paper Mache Clay:

Ten years ago I became frustrated with traditional paper strips and paste. I couldn’t get fine details, like I could when sculpting with real clay. It took too much time to add all those layers of paper mache. And it was messy.

But I wanted to sculpt, and paper mache was the only affordable option.

That’s why I created this original (and still my favorite) recipe for paper mache clay. 

  • It’s affordable.
  • It uses common ingredients that you can find at your local DIY store or Walmart.
  • And it helps you create beautiful sculptures that you can be proud of. This is not the kind of paper mache you made back in grade school!

I put this recipe for paper mache clay on this blog and on YouTube about ten years ago. It has now been used by millions of people around the world, and I get emails and comments every day from people who tell me they love it!

How do you use it?

You use a knife to apply paper mache clay in a really thin layer over your armature, almost like frosting a cake.  You only need a very thin layer, becasue it dries hard and strong, even with as little as 1/8″ applied to your sculpture. 

How long will it last?

Once the material is completely dry, painted and sealed, it will last for years.

When it’s still in the bowl, it will last several days if you cover it tightly to keep it from drying out. Put it in the fridge if you can’t use it again for a week or two, because the organic materials in the recipe can attract mold while it’s still wet. If you want it to last longer, put it in the freezer, and it will last indefinitely. 

Can you sand it?

Yes, but I almost never do. Paper mache clay dries really hard, and sanding it is a pain in the rear. Plus, you need to wear a mask, because you don’t want the fine powder in your lungs.

And you probably want to do it outside, because that fine dust will go all over your house.

What do I do instead? I use drywall joint compound, which I always have on hand because it’s one of the main ingredients of the recipe. To see exactly how I do it, watch my video that shows you how to make paper mache smooth without sanding.

(And yes, it works with traditional paper strips and paste, too.)

When I really have to sand my paper clay I use my little electric sander.

Are there other options?

Yes, there are two other alternative recipes, and many people actually prefer them. Go ahead and try them all, and see which one you like best.

  1. If you live in a humid environment and you worry about mold and mildew, or if you’re allergic to gluten, check out the new recipe for paper mache clay without flour. It takes another small appliance to make it, but the final product works just as well as the original recipe on this page.
  2. If you like to create fine details, the way you might if you were using real clay or polymer clay, try the silky-smooth air dry clay recipe. It uses the same ingredients, plus corn starch, but there’s less paper in the mix so it’s great for detailed textures and details. Many readers have also used it in small silicone molds for jewelry, and they say it works well. I haven’t tried that yet, myself, so do some experiments to see if it works for you.

How to make paper mache clay:

Bowls and mixer for paper mache clay/

You’ll need several large bowls, some measuring cups, a spoon and an electric mixer.

Supplies for making paper mache clay.

The supplies you need for paper mache clay are:

Elmer’s Glue-All, or any PVA glue. Most white glue will work. The Clear Glue from the Elmer’s company also works.

Drywall joint compound – any brand except DAP. That brand doesn’t work because it turns into rubber when mixed with glue.

I buy my joint compound at Walmart. It works great for this recipe, and it’s much less expensive than most brands.

If you aren’t sure what joint compound is called in your country, click here.

Note: There is a warning on the joint compound container that says you should wear a mask when you sand it because it contains silica. Silica is a very hard mineral (most sand is made out of silica) and you don’t want the fine powder in your lungs. I never sand paper mache clay myself, but if you do, be sure to wear a mask. (You should wear a mask when you sand anything!)

To make your paper mache clay smooth without sanding, watch this video.

White flour. The flour thickens the paper mache by soaking up the water. If you can’t use the flour for any reason, you’ll want to use this variation of the paper mache clay recipe instead.

Toilet paper. Any brand will work, so buy the cheapest brand you can find. Some people use recycled paper that has been soaked in hot water and then chopped up with an electric blender. I haven’t tried that myself because I’m lazy and toilet paper is so much easier. But many people have told me that it works.

Mineral oil (baby oil) or linseed oil – this is totally optional. The oil changes the ‘feel’ of the paper mache clay while you’re working with it, but the recipe works just fine without it. Don’t uses boiled linseed oil if children will be helping you with your sculpture, because it contains chemicals.

Step 1: Soak and measure your paper.

Soaking toilet paper for paper mache clay.

The first thing we need to do is get our paper ready. We want about a cup and a quarter of wet paper. You can use any cup to measure with – it doesn’t have to be exact.

Put the paper in hot water to get it wet, and press it down into a measuring cup until you have about a cup and a quarter of wet paper. Then put it back in the hot water. You want all the paper fibers to be separated. Just swirl the paper around with your fingers and the toilet paper will completely fall apart.

Step 2: Press out the water.

You want to press most of the water out of the paper, but you have to be really careful that you don’t press out too much.

If you press out so much of the water that it’s almost dry, it won’t fall apart when you run your mixer. You’ll end up with big globs and bumpy lumps in your paper mache clay.

So go ahead and test it in your hand. Can you push it around and have it come apart, even though most of the water has been pressed out? Then you’re good to go.

Step 3: Add joint compound and glue to the paper mache clay mixture.

Now you can add the drywall joint compound and glue, and start mixing.

What is drywall joint compound? This product is made for the construction industry when they build interior walls. The joint compound is used to cover the edges between two sheets of drywall (also called gypsum board, plaster board and sheet rock). You’ll find it in the paint department at Walmart, or in any DIY store.

If you live in a country where they don’t make flat walls out of plasterboard or drywall, you won’t be able to find drywall joint compound in your stores.

A lot of people ask me, “Can you make paper mache clay without drywall joint compound?” No, you can’t – this recipe requires the joint compound.

If you can’t find the joint compound in your country or if you don’t want to use it, this site has projects that use the traditional paper mache mixture of softened paper and paste.

Mix your paper, joint compound and glue for several minutes. You want the mixer to tear all of the paper fibers apart so it’ll be nice and smooth.

Step 4: Add the flour.

Add flour to the paper mache clay mixture.

You’re going to use the white flour to thicken the paper mache clay. The flour soaks up the excess water in the mixture, and makes it easier to spread the paper mache or create sculpted details.

The amount of flour you need depends on how you want to use your paper mache clay, and how much water was left in the paper. Just keep adding more until you get the consistency you want.

For instance, if you want a really thin layer like I use when I’m covering my mask patterns, or when I want to create a hard solid surface with my first layer, I’ll use a  small amount of flour to make a really thin mixture of the paper mache clay.

Snowy owl made with paper mache clay.But when I want to add texture, or if I want to actually sculpt with the paper mache clay like I did with my snowy owl, then I’ll add more flour.

A note about the beaters: I add 1/2 cup of flour to start with, using the standard beaters. When I need more flour, I’ll switch to the dough hooks.

My mixer didn’t come with the dough hooks, like this one does, but I use some old ones I have from another mixer, and they fit.

If you don’t have the bread-mixing beaters, the paper mache clay has a tendency to crawl up the standard beaters. The mixture will also become very heavy, and could burn out the motor in a small mixer if you use the standard beaters.

Another option is to mix the flour in by hand.

An alternative to a kitchen mixer: If you need to mix up a lot of the paper mache at one time, perhaps for a workshop or a very large project, you can use a paint mixer attachment for an electric drill instead of a of a kitchen mixer, and a plastic pail instead of a bowl.

Step 5: Apply your paper mache clay to your armature.

Use a knife to spread a thin layer of paper mache clay over your armature. If you’ll be using the paper mache clay to add finer details, it’s easiest if you put on a thin layer first and let it dry. Then you have a solid surface for your final sculpting.

Almost any of the projects on this site can be made with paper mache clay. You’ll find them all in the Art Library.  There’s a link to that page at the top of the site, so you can always come back to it. That’s also where you’ll find other recipes, like the smooth air dry clay and the paper mache clay without flour.

For a fast start on a project, choose one of  my mask and sculpture patterns. Any of the patterns can be used with either paper strips and paste or this paper mache clay recipe.

Have fun!

DIY paper mache clay recipe

4,901 thoughts on “Paper Mache Clay”

  1. We were thinking about using this recipe to smooth out a Halloween costume head for my son that was made with paper mache before he paints it, I’m just concerned about using the joint compound. Do you think this is safe to use in the case of smoothing out masks? The inside would be traditional paper mache so this wouldn’t actually come in contact with skin and it would be painted/finished afterwards, just wanted to hear your take on it. Are there safer alternatives to the joint compound if not?

  2. Hi Jonni – I want to use this to cover a pumpkin I made out of a balloon and regular paper mache to give it a smoother and stronger surface. I was wondering if I’d be able to cut into the clay once it has dried to make a jack-o-lantern face. Or will it be too hard? I was hoping to use an exacto knife. Thanks!

    • Hi Jen. Two things – first, using a balloon with paper mache is really hard. The paper mache doesn’t like to stick to rubber, and as it dries the air inside the balloon changes temperature, and that causes it to shrink or expand, leaving wrinkles or cracks on the surface of your paper mache. Our friend Rex Winn wrote a guest post for us, showing us how he shapes his pumpkins with a plastic bag and twine.

      And second, the paper mache clay dries as hard as a rock, and it would be really hard to cut it with an exacto knife. You would probably need a Dremel tool with a blade on it to cut through it. But you don’t need to cut it if you leave those areas without any paper mache clay. You can outline the jack-o-lantern face with a thin crumpled roll of foil, tape it on with masking tape, and then put your paper mache up to the foil, or even over the foil, but leave the hole open. When you take the plastic bag out of the pumpkin it will already have a face. You can see me doing that, but with different materials, here.

      I hope this helps. Have fun!

  3. Hello! I’m working on a Halloween costume and have bought all the materials for this project. I know you state you can use this for adding texture, but is it possible to create bulk with this? As in, I currently have a flat top surface, but I’d like to use the paper mache to create a form on top of that.

    Also, would this sit effectively on duct and masking tape or will I need to cover it?

    • Hi Kat. I put the paper mache clay directly over duct tape when I made my big dragon, and it worked. I believe I made the mixture a bit wetter than the recipe shows, just to make sure it would stick. You can add new paper mache clay over dry paper mache clay to create details. I don’t recommend building up too much depth in just one layer, though, because it would take much longer to dry all the way through.

      Good luck with your project. 🙂

  4. Can I use the joint compound that’s already mixed and don’t need to add water too or does it need to be the powder?

  5. I let it dry overnight and it is not hard in the morning. How long does it take to dry? It is cold in the garage so maybe this is why. It is kind of rubbery and I did not get DAP but maybe I got the wrong kind?

    • Hi Melissa. The drying time depends on how thickly it was applied and how much moisture is in the surrounding air. But in any case, you should expect it to take at least two days to dry. It will dry faster if you can put it in front of a fan. It should dry very hard, so if there’s any flex in it at all, it’s still damp inside.

  6. Hi Jonni!
    I just wanted to let you know that I love this recipe! I cannot believe how strong it is after it dries! I sculpted a greenman on a branch to make a wand with Amaco air dry clay and it cracked and crumbled when it dried. I did a trial run of your recipe, but instead of joint compound I used the air dry clay (originally I was going to try to make a slip mixture and try to just fix the cracks but it turned into something way different and way better). I mixed the ingredients in a blender with a little more water until it was mostly smooth with a little chunky texture. I used a knife to pack the substance onto my crumbling art and let it dry all night. I picked it up the next day and touched it. It was solid as a rock. I mashed on the once fragile pieces that are about 1/4 inch thick and they are just as solid and strong. The only thing is next time I will use it over a lighter base than putting it over already dried clay sculptures because it becomes very heavy that way, but I really didn’t want to lose what I had already created. I plan on using this recipe to make all of my sculptures and creations from now on! Thanks soooooo much!

      • I did! The major difference was that I did not add any flour to the first one I did. The next night I used it over tin foil and I added a touch of flour. I made horns for a friend’s cosplay and he loved them! They turned out so good and they are sooooo lightweight. Tonight I added more flour to actually sculpt the clay into something. It’s drying now but I’m excited to see if it dries as nicely as before. The one thing I do like about the air dry clay is that it is non toxic. I hated how it dried before I used it in the recipe. It felt chalky and crumbled easily. Now that I have used it in your recipe it dries beautifully!

        • That’s great! Do you happen to have a photo of those horns that you’d be able to share? We’d love to see how they came out. Images need to be less than 250 KB to load into a comment, but if you don’t have image editing software you can use this free online tool.

  7. Hi! Is there a way to make this recipe without an electric mixer? I’m an art student in college and need to make a sculpture. Thanks!

    • Hi Allie. I haven’t tried it yet, but many people have told me that the recipe can be mixed by hand. It will probably be easier if you mix first without the flour, and keep mixing until it doesn’t look lumpy. Then start adding flour gradually, until it’s the consistency you want.

      By the way, we’d love to see how your sculpture comes out. 🙂

  8. Just stumbled across this recipe while looking for a way to create a large spherical helmet for an art installation. I have one question though, will this clay transmit light at all? For instance if LEDs are mounted on one side of the clay, will you be able to see them from the other side?

    • Hi Skylar. I haven’t tried it, but I believe the layer would need to be very thin in order to see any light through it. You could do a small test piece to see for sure. I suppose you could drill tiny holes through the dried paper mache clay, but that probably isn’t the look you’re going for.

      • Thanks for the reply. The tiny holes might actually work!

        My other question is, how strong is this once it’s dry? Would it hold up to people picking it up and handling it a lot?

  9. Hi Jonn. I like to know the paper-mache you make can you leave it for many days or do you have to use it straight away I have sent a picture if it comes to you have a skeleton I am doing for Halloween this is my first attempt it just bought your book on the little dogs I’m going to have a go at them i notice that there is no Jack Russells in the book that is I have one
    I’d like to keep in contact with you you because I found something that I enjoy doing as I am unemployed and this is an enjoyable way to do things in my workshop the Halloween one is looking good I am very good with my hands always have been hope to hear a reply from you soon sorry this is a long message yours sincerely Glen

    • Hi Glen. The Fox Terrier pattern in the book will work for you Jack Russell, although you might want to make the muzzle just a little shorter. If you tried to upload an image, it didn’t come through. They need to be less than 250 KB to work. You can use this free online picture resizer if you don’t have image editing software on your device. We’d love to see your skeleton!

  10. Hello you do amazing work I was wondering what base you use to form your project the base that you will be applying the clay I apologize if you already have it on your site but I didn’t find it

  11. Hello! I think your recipe may just be the saving grace to my cosplay project and all other cosplayers alike. It’s hard to find a clay that is cheap and durable and easy to come by.

    I think explaining exactly what I’m doing will be quite confusingly without being able to see the project, so I will leave that out. The important part is that I made a batch of clay that was really thin at first for my first layer on the armature, but I’ve been adding more flour to make it into a clay. The problem is that it’s less of a clay and more of a dough now, and I’ve used all my flour. I don’t think that more flour will ever help it. I think I will as more toilet paper, as that should bulk it up a bit, but I would like to know what you would recommend in this instance. Thank you, and thank you for being the genius behind this recipe!

    • Hi Faith. Many people like to put on a thin layer of paper mache clay first, and let it dry. That gives you a nice solid base for any additional details. Then they mix up a batch of the air dry clay, which uses the same ingredients but has less paper and the addition of corn starch. It’s much smoother and more clay-like, and it’s great for adding details.

      The paper mache clay is never going to be like ‘real’ clay, but it is possible to use it for details if it has the additional flour. But I don’t think you like the feel of it now, or like using it, but you might like the air dry clay much better. Give it a try – even though you’ll need to make an extra trip to the store for the flour.

      • Hi, I love your site, lots of great info. Thanks for sharing all your wonderful tips & experience! Now my Question ?: abt Joint Compound- is it the powder kind or the wet kind that looks like marshmallow creme when you open the tub? My internet service is extremely poor, so am unable to view videos or stay on a site for long, so I may have missed mention of this . I have held off buying the supplies til sure. Many thanks for the help. MA

  12. I just coated a large figure with the clay. It dried very nicely but the surface it is very rough. I soaked the toilet paper in hot water for 1/2 hour but the fibers still clumped up not nearly as smooth as your examples. What am I doing wrong? It’s a cool texture but not really what I want and it’s spiky looking.

    I did use the school glue. It seemed to mix fine with everything. It’s the paper that isn’t working.

    • Hi Kate. I usually smooth the surface with a damp knife, while the clay is still wet. That does help, but the texture of the paper will always show through. However, you can easily make the surface as smooth as you want, either by adding a thin layer of the air dry clay, which uses the same ingredients but has less paper, or by using the method in this video (which is faster and easier).

  13. I had a lot of fun trying your paper mache clay. I am making a huge roly poly bug costume and I’m using an exercise ball for the armature. I’m finding gravity takes its toll and the clay falls off. Can I use traditional paper mache as a supplement to build up sides and make a hybrid traditional/ultimate paper mache shell or should I go back to just paper strips?

    • Hi Karen. Yes, you can use paper strips first, or for just some parts of the costume. But if your ball is rubber, the paper strips and paste might fall off, too. You might need to do the part that’s on top, let it harden, and then turn the ball to do another portion of the ball. I used plaster cloth over a ball once, and it was a little easier, but you still have gravity working against you. Good luck with it!

    • Hi Karen, I noticed your comment – I had the same problem working with a huge balloon and trying to cover it with strips and glue/water paste… If the surface is smooth it should work for you too. I tried liquid starch and strips of newsprint and it works every time 🙂 I found Jonni’s brilliant recipes (Jonni thank you 🙂 ) and I’m going to put the paper clay on top of the newspaper and starch shell to make it stronger and nicer. If you were to use a balloon, put one layer of strips first and leave to dry well before putting another. After 2 or three layers more/thicker layers can be applied. Just the first layer – go slowly or it will burst. Good luck 🙂 Magdalena

    • Hi Karen!

      I’m starting the same project! How did it workout? Any great tips? I would love to hear how your project went!

      • Hi Lexi,

        We are still working on it. I made one shell with construction paper and glue and not only was it labor intensive, but it took about 3 days to dry. I ended up making six of the shells with plaster strips and I’m worried they are too heavy. I have the rod and will start drilling and pop-riveting this weekend. I wonder if there is a way for us to get in touch.

  14. can you roll out paper mache to form walls for a small house shape ? should I use plastic as a support (under the rollling)..?

    • Hi Patricia. You might want to use the air dry clay instead. Our friend Eileen tells us that you can roll it out between waxed paper. Then remove the top piece of paper to allow it to dry out and get stiff before assembling your house. That paper mache clay recipe on this page is a little too sticky and wet, so the other recipe would work better.

  15. I want to make a bowl to turn upside down and make a large wall flower with crepe paper. Do I put something over the bowl (or round balloon) to get the finished bowl off? Which is the best formula to use for making this bowl?

    • Hi Carol. The easiest way to keep the paper mache from sticking to a bowl is to cover it with thin plastic wrap. Spray the bowl with water, first, so the plastic will stick. A balloon won’t need anything on it, because paper mache doesn’t stick to rubber, if you let it dry before trying to remove the balloon. If you try to remove the balloon when the inside surface of the paper mache is still wet, the paper mache will collapse along with the balloon – and that’s not much fun. I have never made any paper mache using crepe paper, so you’d want to do some experiments. Both the cooked flour and water paste and the Elmer’s Art Paste will dry clear, so I’d start with them.

  16. Hi Jonni! I just discovered you last week through someone online who was using your recipes for a big project. I’m so excited to try the paper mache clay.

    I know PVA Glue is best and you use Elmer’s Glue All. Is Elmer’s School Glue is also ok to use? Is it different than the Glue All?

    I’m about to launch into a huge project myself. I can’t wait! I just want to make sure I have the right supplies.

    Thanks so much for sharing your expertise!

    • Hi Lillie. I think I tested the school glue years ago, and I don’t think it worked – but I could be wrong. If you have some drywall joint compound on hand, you can easily test it. Just put about a tablespoon of the joint compound and the glue together, and stir. If it stays fairly runny, like you would expect it to, the glue will work. If it stiffens up, or gets rubbery, then it won’t work. Be sure the drywall joint compound is not the DAP brand, because it will cause the rubbery problem. I use the pre-mixed joint compound from the paint department in Walmart.

      If you test it and it does work, please let us know. That would be very useful info! 🙂

      • Jonni,
        Thank you for the helpful description of what I should look for when mixing the two. I followed your instructions and the mixture was runny! I used the ProForm brand joint compound and Elmer’s School Glue for the test.
        I actually have a small bottle of Elmer’s Glue All and decided to do a comparison mixture as well.
        The school-glue/compound was super runny and thin. The glue-all/compound was still runny-ish but had a thicker consistency.
        I think I won’t mess with the recipe since this is my first attempt at paper mache clay. Plus I’m doing quite a large piece. So I’m going out this evening to find some Glue All!
        Thanks again!

        • That’s good to know, Lillie. I wonder if they just put more water in the school glue to make it less expensive? Still, with all the work you’ll be putting into your sculpture, you’re right to leave major experiments for another, smaller project. I hope you’ll let us see your piece when it’s done.

          • I think you are right about them adding water to the school glue. Well, she’s not complete yet but I’ve already made 6 batches of the paper mache clay for my zebra! I’m estimating 3-4 more batches to completely cover her. I love this stuff!

  17. Hi Jonni, I’m thrilled to have found you and your site. I’ve really been inspired by watching your videos, thank you so much! I wanted to ask, how do you decide when to use the Paper Mache Clay recipe or the Air Dry Clay recipe? From what I can tell, it appears difficult to mold features and do detail with the Paper Mache Clay. It seems you need all the detail work to already be in the armachure when applying it. The Air Dry Clay looks like it molds just like clay and you can add features and detail with it. Am I correct in this? I want to make people and add faces and features. Thank you!

    • Hi Noah. The air dry clay recipe and the paper mache clay recipe are very similar, but the air dry clay is smoother and most people add enough flour and corn starch to make it easy to sculpt features with it. You can do the same thing with the paper mache clay recipe just by adding more flour, but you’ll always have a rough papery texture because of the higher paper content.

      I rarely sculpt people faces, so I don’t use the air dry clay as often as a lot of people do. I really like the organic texture of the paper mache clay. But many people who want a smooth surface use the paper mache clay first in a very thin layer, to get a solid base to work on. Then they make up a batch of the air dry clay recipe for the final skin and features. When I made the animal dolls for my book I use a layer of plaster cloth first instead of the paper mache clay, which gave me the solid surface without having to wait for the PM clay to dry. There are lots of ways of doing it.

      I hope you’ll show us people sculptures when they’re finished. We’d love to see how they come out.

  18. Thank you for this recipe. I have just applied my first batch to my armature and cannot find anywhere on the site that tells my the drying time. Do you just leave it sitting at room temperature and wait? How long? I applied about 1/4” thickness.

    • Yes, that’s pretty much how you do it. The drying time depends on so many different things that it can take from one day to three days, or even more. The best way to speed it up is to have it in a room with lots of air movement. I like to put mine in front of a fan. And remember that the outside feels dry when the inside is still damp, so if it’s cool to the touch or if there’s any ‘give’ to it when you press on it, give it another day.


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