paper mache paste recipes

Paper Mache Recipes


This page contains recipes for several kinds of home-made paper mache paste, and home-made gesso recipes for finishing your sculptures.

I have been messing around with paper mache for over 50 years and up until a few months ago I always came back to the easiest paper mache recipes, using plain old white flour and water paste with torn strips of newspaper.

Now, however, I have abandoned the traditional layered paper process and use my new paper mache clay recipe  and/or the even newer silky-smooth air-dry clay recipe for most my sculptures. However, for younger artists or for those who really don’t want to make the trip to the hardware store, these following recipes work just fine, and most of the tutorials on this site would work using these traditional paper mache recipes.

Paper Mache Paste Recipes:

Paper Mache Recipe #1

Paper Mache Recipe #1

White flour and water make a remarkably strong paste. In fact, some folks think paper mache is strong enough to build houses with. Your finished sculptures might not be strong enough to hold up a house, but you can sand them and drill them, just like wood.

Boiled Flour and Water Paste:

Many people use a paste that is made of white flour and water that has been brought to a boil. I did some experimenting and found that this paste is not as strong as raw paste, so you’ll need more layers of paper to make your finished sculpture stiff enough. However, it does dry clear, so many people prefer it. To make boiled paste, mix a heaping tablespoon of white flour with a cup of water in a small saucepan and stir until there are no lumps. Put the pan on the stove at medium heat and bring to a boil, stirring constantly. Remove from heat and allow to cool. The paste will be very runny at this stage, but it will gell as it cools.

Raw Flour and Water Paste:

This is the paste I almost always use, because it’s stronger than boiled paste and you can complete a project with only a few layers of paper. To make up the paste, just pour some white flour in a bowl, and add water gradually until you have a consistency that will work well. (Use a small kitchen mixer so you don’t have any lumps).

How thick should you make your paste? It’s actually up to you. Experiment with thick pastes that resemble hotcake batter, and thin pastes that are runny and watery. You get to decide which ones you prefer.

Keep in mind that it is the flour, and not the water, that gives strength to your paper mache sculpture. And also remember that each layer of paste and paper that is added to your project must dry completely to keep it from developing mold.

Speaking of mold, why not use wallpaper pastes that contain fungicides? There are two reasons why I choose to use white flour pastes, instead of ingredients that prevent mold. First, white flour is ridiculously cheap when compared to any other type of art supply. And second, I hate the idea of dipping my hands in something that contains poison. If small children were helping me with my projects, this would be even more important.

To prevent the development of mold in your projects, you just need to remember that molds cannot grow without water. Therefore, take every effort to dry out your projects completely. I usually put my small sculptures in a warm oven (not over 200 F) or place them near a radiator. Next summer I intend to build a solar dryer that will be large enough for bigger items. The main trick is to make sure the sculpture is dry all the way through – if any dampness is left inside when you apply paint or other finish, the sculpture will eventually rot from the inside out – a truly disappointing development, I assure you.

Glue-Based paste:

If you don’t want to mess with flour and water, and you don’t mind spending the money for some Elmer’s glue, I found this video for a glue-based paper mache paste that you might want to use instead.

Paper Mache Recipe #2

Paper Mache Recipe #2

Papers to Use for Paper Mache:

The traditional paper to use for paper mache is newspaper, which is torn into short strips. (Cut edges should be avoided, because they don’t blend in.) Newspaper is cheap, and it is a soft paper that is easy to bend and mold around a sculpture.

However, you can also use brown kraft paper from paper bags, which will give your sculpture a naturally warm color if the piece is left unpainted.

You can also use softer papers, like paper towels and even tissue paper. The softer papers are used to fashion delicate details, and textured paper towels can be used to add an interesting final coat. The paper mache dragon on this site used the bumpiness of paper towels to represent the dragon’s leathery skin.

Gesso Recipes:

Gesso helps to seal the paper mache and provide a nice white ground that makes your paint brighter. You can use acrylic gesso from the art store, or make your own.

Easy Glue and Joint Compound recipe:

I make my gesso using about 3 parts joint compound, 1 part Elmer’s Glue-All, and some white acrylic paint if I want the gesso nice and white. The paint isn’t really needed. You can apply a coat of this gesso, sand it or use a lightly damp sponge to smooth it out, and then add another layer if the surface still isn’t smooth enough.

Powdered Marble Gesso recipe:

For a thicker home-made gesso, you can use calcium carbonate (powdered marble) and white glue. The traditional proportions are 2 parts PVA glue (Elmer’s or an archival book-binder’s PVA glue if you worry about pH), 4 parts water, and 8 parts calcium carbonate. To make it nice and white, add 1 part powdered titanium or zinc white pigment. If you want to thicken the gesso to cover bumps faster, you can use more powdered marble.

Finishing Your Paper Mache Sculpture:

You can use any type of paint on your sculpture. I usually use acrylic craft paints, and a final glaze made from water-based Verathane mixed with a bit of brown, or copper paint from the craft store. This final coat is put on with a brush and then immediately rubbed off with a paper towel, leaving the darker color in the dips and valleys of the sculpture. I happen to like the effect, but it is certainly not required.




  • I want to make a large cave, we have the chicken wire foundation held up with rebar. it over 8 feet long and in places over 6 feet tall, its about 3 feet across at the base. my question is can we use bed sheets instead of paper to cover the chicken wire, we have a lot of surface area to cover.

    • Hi Steve. Yes, you can use sheets. Dan Reeder uses sheets dipped in diluted white glue over his paper mache to make the skin stronger, and a lot of Halloween displays are made with sheets that have been dipped in Monster Mud. You might want to go with the Monster Mud, because you won’t have any paper mache under the sheets. It’s a mixture of pre-mixed joint compound and exterior latex paint. Do a Google Search or check on YouTube for exact recipes and how to use it. I’ve been told it dries quite hard.

  • Hi. Crazy as this might sound my husband and I would like to make a go cart body. He wants to try with the water flower news paper idea. Finishing off with a fiberglass or something to make it strong enough. We have the the go cart but it’s just that. Making this a blended family Project. I believe we might use chicken wire to form the frame of the body… Do you think this is something that we can do? If it’s possible he can do it ? he wants to keep the news paper look but we won’t be cooking the glue..

    • Hi Donna. Yes, this sounds like it would work. The fiberglass will help support the paper mache, and the paper mache will give you something to apply the fiberglass to. Do they make transparent fiberglass?

      Raw flour and water paste will leave a white residue on the top layer of paper, but you will still be able to see that it’s newspaper. If he doesn’t like the look, he can always add one more layer of paper mache using a cooked paste or Elmer’s Glue-All, which dries clear.

      I do hope your husband will show us his go-cart when it’s done!

  • Hello!
    Do you think it is possible to build a solar dryer out of paper mache panels? Just wondering. Thank you!

  • Hi, I’m making a very large surprise egg for my daughters birthday, the egg is 50 inches tall. I’ve added about 5 layers of paper so far but the egg still feels extremely delicate. Initially I used newspaper and pva glue but it was very costly so I then used lining paper (wallpaper) and wallpaper paste, the egg still isn’t firming up. It needs to be very strong as I’m sure my little girl will want to use this as some sort of den once it’s made can you please suggest a cheep method I could use that will guarantee me a good strong sturdy egg? Thank you.

    • Hi Laura. I would just keep adding paper. It sounds like you’re using heavy paper, so it should get strong if you add enough. I have never used wallpaper paste, so I’m not sure how stiff it gets. You could do a small experiment, using flour and water paste, and see if it stiffens up any better.

      Paper mache is supposed to be as strong as an equal thickness of plywood. Or so they say – I have no way to test that theory. Six layers of paper would make extremely thin plywood. I think you just need to add more, and make sure all the paste dries, all the way through. A fan could help.

      • Thanks very much for responding. I’m going to try newspaper to try and give a smoother finish, what would your class as one layer? One individual peace of news paper or a couple in one sitting? Also how many more layers would you suggest for a large egg of this size? Thank you.

        • I’ve never made an egg, so I’m probably not the expert on how many layers you’ll need. I consider one piece of paper as a layer, but I do all my layers at once instead of waiting for each one to dry. I use a fan to make sure they dry all the way through.

          If you can be fairly sure that the children won’t chew on the egg, you could add a thin layer of paper mache clay, if you use mineral oil instead of linseed oil when you’re mixing it. You wouldn’t want children to eat the mixture of joint compound and glue, but if you don’t think that would be an issue, the pm clay would be harder and faster.

          • Thanks for response, I’m new to this and I’m now having a problem drying out the mache, it just appears soggy even after 12 hours drying time?
            Is there anything I can do to salvage this? I’m worried i may have to start from scratch and won’t have enough time

          • Hi, unfortunately I had to remove the mache from the balloon as it wasn’t drying. Can you suggest a quick and easy method to achieve a very hard mache please. Thank you.

          • I don’t know why your paper mache isn’t drying properly. Since you’re in a hurry, you might want to run down to the hobby store and get some plaster cloth. Just dip it in warm water, smooth it over your balloon, and add the next piece. You’d need several layers for it to be strong enough, but it hardens almost immediately. Then, you can add on layer of newspaper with a flour and water paste, if you want to make the egg smoother. If you set this in front of a fan, the chemical reaction in the plaster will help it dry.

          • Thank you for the response, how many layers of plaster cloth would you suggest? And should I be leaving a day in between applications? Also will the paper stick to the cloth? Thanks

          • It depends on how strong you want the finished piece to be. I would go with at least three, and use the widest plaster cloth you can find, to make it go on faster. Do all the layers at once, because wet plaster doesn’t like to stick to dry plaster. Flour and water paste will stick to plaster just fine.

  • Hi Jonni, I need to get in contact with Ari Kahn I have to ask him a question about about the process about using the cardboard and chipboard it says to apply the contact cement first to both sides first let Do I attach it to the armeture do I use more contact cement.

    • Ari hasn’t been answering comments on his guest post for several years now. I think we need to assume that we have all the information from him that he’s able to share. The float builders keep their secrets really well, unfortunately. There is a book that has a few pages on the techniques. I can’t find my copy, but I think it’s 3D Wizardry. It’s out of print but available on amazon, but we can’t look inside the book to make sure it’s the right one. If I remember correctly, the author applies the contact cement, lets it dry, and then rolls up the long strips of cardboard and forms the shapes that way, so they’re hollow and there’s no armature at all. However, I could be wrong. If I did it, I’d need an armature so I’d know in advance what shapes I’m getting, and I’d probably use more contact cement, or perhaps some pins through the cardboard pieces if it would be safe.

    • If your intent is for the cardboard/chipboard to adhere to something else then yes, you use more contact cement. The first coat is to seal a porous material or surface. Until it is sealed it can not stick to anything.

  • I’m about to put your homemade gesso coat on this Raptor. Next step will be paint that is weather-proof? Any suggestions?

    • I don’t know of a paint that’s absolutely waterproof, but you could try exterior latex paint. Some people have good luck with a final coating of marine varnish.

    • Maybe try a coat of poly that’s what I’m doing with these 7′ tall Sarcophagus I’m constructing for a music festival

    • It would be coated in plastic, but waterproof if you used Plastidip. There are limited colors but there are forums on the internet which include information on how people created different colors. Generally it changes the composition of the Plastidip so that is no longer easy to remove. However, if you are not worried about it being a perm infant coating that wouldn’t matter. You could dip you project but it is also available in a spray, which I am assuming cam be painted with a plastic friendly paint.

  • We are making a large sized earth costume for my daughter to wear at her school play. What I’ve found online is to use an exercise ball as the shape (which we have) my question though is should I cover the ball with plastic wrap before applying the paper mache? Or will that hinder the drying process? Or will it simply peel off when I let the air out of the ball once it’s completely dry and I shouldn’t worry covering it? Any pointers would be helpful! Thanks!

    • Hi Rebecca. I’ve never used an exercise ball as a form, but I think it might be easiest if you put plastic wrap on first. That way, the paper mache should peel off easily once it’s dry. Be sure to wait until it’s absolutely, for sure, all the way dry – it can feel dry on the outside, while still being wet on the inside. If it’s still wet, it will collapse when you let the air out of the ball.

      Good luck with it. This sounds like a fun project.

      • Thank you Jonni! We have two weeks to have it done so I’ll give it extra time to dry for sure. I’ll let you know how it turns out. Thanks again!

  • My son has a project due in two days , and of course I am just finding out about it today ,It’s a basketball. I was going to use a balloon and paper mache then paint it orange . I was concerned if it would dry in time for him to be able to paint it? He will use the traditional recipe . I don’t think he could use the oven with the balloon to speed the drying process . Maybe the sun ? We live in Florida, so I’m sure it will be in the 90’s today . Any suggestions?

    • Hi Ronda. You can put paper mache in the sun to dry, but it may be faster to put it in front of a fan. Balloons can be tricky, because they change their shape when the temperature of the air inside changes. You can get cracks or wrinkles when that happens. If he has a problem with it, another layer of paper mache might be needed to repair the damage. You might suggest to him to use as little paste as he can, because you only need enough to stick the paper together. Less paste means less drying time.

      Unfortunately, paper mache is not a fast method, because of the drying. If all else fails, he could cover a balloon with one or two layers of plaster cloth, which hardens within minutes, and then add one layer of newspaper and paste on top. Put it in front of a fan to dry, and it should be ready to paint within 24 hours or less.

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