Paper Mache Recipes, Tips, Techniques, and Experiments

Paper Mache Clay

Several years ago I developed a new recipe for a sculptural material I call “paper mache clay.”

This material is so easy to use and so easy to make that the recipe has now gone “viral” and is being used by artists all over the world. The video above is an update, just to give you a better idea about how to actually use the clay. The original video is below, and if you scroll down you’ll find the recipe in written form, as well.

It might be a bit more accurate to call this material “home-made air-dried cellulose-reinforced polymer clay,” but that’s way too hard to say (or type!), so for now, let’s just call it paper mache clay.

Make Animal Sculptures with Paper Mache ClayThe first video below shows how to make the paper mache clay, and the second video answers some common questions that I’ve received from readers since I first developed this recipe. Below the videos you’ll find the recipe written out, and a few comments about how it’s used. (This recipe is the basis for my book “Make Animal Sculptures with Paper Mache Clay.”)

Since the book came out, I’ve received many questions about the materials used in the paper mache clay, and I answered many of them on this page.

How to Use Your Paper Mache Clay

I usually make mine fairly thin by using less flour than the recipe calls for, so it can be spread over an armature like frosting,  – but you can also add more flour to make it thicker when you want more control over the modeling process. The clay dries extremely hard when applied in a very thin layer (1/8 to 1/4″ thick), and it seems to dry much faster than traditional paper mache pulp. Even with a thin layer, you’ll need to give it plenty of time to dry, just like regular paper strips and paste.

Paper Mache Clay on Snow Leopard Sculpture

Paper Mache Clay Made Thick Enough for Modeling Details

As you can see above, the clay can be modeled into fairly fine details. Using the clay for modeling feels much more intuitive than creating sculptures with paper strips and paste, and once the clay is dry it is a pleasure to paint.

If you need an even smoother material, try my Silky-Smooth Air Dry Clay. You still need an armature for the air dry clay, but there’s less paper, so it dries smoother, and it’s easier to sand.

The Recipe for Paper Mache Clay

Drywall Joint CompoundThe ingredients  are inexpensive, and can be found at your local grocery store and hardware store. You will need:

  • Cheap Toilet Paper (measure the wet paper pulp as instructed in the video, and use 1 1/4 cups – some rolls contain more paper than needed)
  • 1 cup Drywall Joint compound from the hardware store or Walmart. (Get premixed “regular,” that comes in a plastic tub, not the dry powder form.)
    Note:  The DAP brand does not work. It will turn your pm clay into a rubbery mess. All other brands will work just fine.
  • 1/2 cup White Flour
  • 2 tablespoons Mineral Oil or Linseed Oil. I now recommend Mineral Oil (Baby Oil) because it’s easier to find, and it’s safer to use if kids are helping with your project. Can’t find either one? Just leave it out. The recipe works just fine without it.

See the video below for details on making your clay. And if you try this recipe, please let us all know what you think of it–and also please share a photo of your finished work. We’d love to see how it comes out.

(Can’t see the video? See the instructions printed below).

Making Your Paper Mache Clay


You’ll also need a large bowl, (use one with high sides so you don’t splatter clay on your cupboards), an electric mixer, a measuring cup and a tablespoon measure. To keep t he finished clay from drying out, you’ll need an air-tight container. The recipe makes approximately 1 quart of paper mache clay.

Note about Toilet Paper:

Unfortunately, the people who make toilet paper don’t expect us to turn their product into great works of art, so they see no reason to include the kind of information that would make things a lot easier for us.

I use a brand called “Angel Soft,” in the “regular” 2-ply rolls. I buy it at my local Wal-Mart. Each roll contains approximately 1 1/4 cup of paper, which I measured by wetting the paper, squeezing out the water, and then firmly squishing it into a measuring cup. They change things sometimes, so you’ll still want to measure the wet paper. And if you find a brand that’s cheaper, go ahead and buy it – the brand doesn’t matter at all.

Since brands differ so much, the first time you make this recipe you should take a few minutes to find out how much paper is in the first roll. Then adjust the recipe if your brand don’t contain about 1 1/4 cup of paper. Fortunately, this is not a chemistry experiment or rocket science – if your mixture contains a little more paper than mine, or a little less, your sculptures will still be stunning.

Step 1. Fill a high-sided bowl with warm water. Remove the toilet paper from the roll and throw it into the water. Push down on the paper to make sure all of it gets wet.

Step 2. Then pick up the paper and squeeze out as much water as you can. Pour the water out of the bowl and put your paper mass back in.

Step 3. You will want to break the paper into chunks about 1″ across. This will allow your mixer to move around the pieces and break them apart.

Step 4. Add all the ingredients to the bowl and mix, using an electric mixer. The mixer will pull the fibers of the toilet paper apart and turn it into pulp. Continue to mix for at least 3 minutes to make sure all the paper has been mixed in with the other ingredients. If you still see some lumps, use a fork or your fingers (with the mixer turned off!) to break them apart, and then mix some more.

Your paper mache clay is now ready to use. It will look a bit like cookie dough – but don’t eat it!

If you don’t plan to use your clay right away, place it in an airtight container to keep it from drying out. The clay should stay usable for 5 days or more, if you keep it covered. The recipe makes about 1 quart.

You may also like:

How I painted the Unicorn.Unicorn Pattern
Hyena Mask PatternHyena Mask Pattern
Life Sized Paper Mache Baby ElephantLife-Sized Baby Elephant


  • Hello Jonni, and thank you for sharing your talents and skills so selflessly with the rest of us! I appreciate your generosity.

    I am using your black bear pattern to create a theatre set prop. I am making a life-size faux polar bear rug. The head will need to be strong enough so it doesn’t collapse under the weight of the body fur. I plan on using your paper mache clay to reinforce the structure and create fur texture around his snout. Does the mineral oil add to the overall strength of the end product, or just to it’s smoothness? Thanks again for your expertise.

    • Hi Sharon. I don’t think the mineral oil adds anything except a smoother feel to the pm clay while you’re using it. I often forget to add any oil, and the result is just as strong. To improve the strength of your polar bear (great idea!) you might want to fill it with rice or sand. It would make the head heavier, but there would be inside support in case someone decides to put his or her foot on the bear’s head and strike a pose. 😉

      What are you using for polar-bear fur?

      • I’ll be using long hair synthetic fur. We have an awesome textile resource here in Chicago. I forgot to mention my plan to fill the head cavity with “Great Stuff” expanding spray foam. It dries hard but can be carved and sanded as necessary. The tricky part will be judging how much to use for the correct amount of expansion so it doesn’t disfigure the shape of his head! Fingers crossed and I’ll keep you posted.

  • Hi Jonni, I’m really enjoying your tutorials and have been making masks on a regular basis since encountering your site. I was using the blue shop towel approach and went back for more tips and saw your paper mache clay recipe and was really excited to try it. However I think I messed up the recipe a bit by using too much TP in the mix. I bought the double roll of angel soft and tried to guesstimate how much was half. It was a little sticky and I had trouble getting a uniform surface while keeping the details. It’s a little thin in spots and you can see the oil clay through it (it’s a dark brown oil clay). I’m worried about doing another layer though because I’m afraid of losing even more of the detail. I’m going to try to send you an image and I was wondering if you can tell me if it’s safe to take off or not? I still have a lot of the clay left and I was wondering if just adding a bit more of the wet ingredients would help make it more spreadable, or maybe I just need to mix it for longer? Anyway, I really appreciate the time you put into these tutorials and the sharing of your amazing talent!

    • Hi Patrice. Your image didn’t come through, but you can certainly add more of the joint compound and glue, and then mix again, to distribute the paper better. To make your pm clay less sticky, you can add more flour or even use corn starch. It will soak up some of the liquid in the mix. If you can see through the pm clay, you’ll probably lose those parts when you take the dried clay off the form. I would recommend using just a little more pm clay and letting it dry.

      Next time, you might actually prefer to use your shop towels for the initial layers, and then use the pm clay or the smoother version for the final details. You could end up with a lighter mask that’s smoother on the inside.

  • I’m not a native English speaker so bear with me please..

    Hi, thanks for the fantastic amount and quality of info on Paper Mache you provide on your site..
    Could be you explained in somewhere (can’t find it) but I wonder why exactly the PVA-glue is needed, I haven’t used it yet with my mixture, so I wonder.
    Just Joint Compound (“tegellijm” in The Netherlands) seems to be working for me.

    • If it works without the glue, that’s great. I think it helps prevent cracking, and the resulting dried mixture is very hard and strong. Drywall joint compound by itself is designed to be used in very thin layers on a wall, and is fragile on its own. But I have to admit I’ve never tried just using the joint compound with paper and flour, without the glue. I’m wondering if your drywall joint compound in the Netherlands is different from ours. Has anyone else tried this?

    • Are you talking about paper money? I doubt it. They make that paper especially so it won’t break down easily. Completely opposite of tp, which dissolves instantly in water. If you were talking about some other kind of bill, let me know.

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