Paper Mache Clay

Several years ago I developed a new recipe for a sculptural material I call “paper mache clay.” This material is so easy to use and so easy to make that I now use it exclusively for all my paper mache sculptures. The recipe has now gone “viral” and is being used by artists all over the world.

It might be a bit more accurate to call this material “home-made air-dried cellulose-reinforced polymer clay,” but that’s way too hard to say (or type!), so for now, let’s just call it paper mache clay.

Make Animal Sculptures with Paper Mache ClayThe first video below shows how to make the paper mache clay, and the second video answers some common questions that I’ve received from readers since I first developed this recipe. Below the videos you’ll find the recipe written out, and a few comments about how it’s used. (This recipe is the basis for my book “Make Animal Sculptures with Paper Mache Clay.”)

 

I usually make mine fairly thin so it can be spread over an armature like frosting, by using less flour than the recipe calls for – but you can also make it thicker, with more flour, when you want more control over the modeling process. The clay dries extremely hard when applied in a very thin layer (1/8 to 1/4″ thick), and it seems to dry much faster than traditional paper mache pulp. (And it only takes about 5 minutes to make).

Paper Mache Clay on Snow Leopard Sculpture
Paper Mache Clay on Snow Leopard Sculpture

As you can see above, the clay can be modeled into fairly fine details. Using the clay for modeling feels much more intuitive than creating sculptures with paper strips and paste, and once the clay is dry it is a pleasure to paint.

The ingredients are inexpensive, and can be found at your local grocery store and hardware store. You will need:

  • Cheap toilet paper (measure the wet paper pulp, and use 1 1/4 cups – some rolls contain more paper than needed)
  • 1 cup Joint compound from the hardware store (get premixed “regular,” that comes in a plastic tub, not the dry powder form.) (Not sure what Joint compound is, or what it’s called in your country? click here.) Note: buy any brand except DAP. The DAP brand does not work.
  • 3/4 cup Elmer’s Glue-all (PVA glue)
  • 1/2 cup White Flour
  • 2 tablespoons Linseed Oil or Mineral Oil (Linseed oil contains chemicals, so mineral oil is a better choice if you’re working with kids, or if you like to get your hands in the clay)

See the video below for details on making your clay. And if you try this recipe, please let us all know what you think of it–and also please share a photo of your finished work. We’d love to see how it comes out. (Can’t see the video? See the instructions printed below).

[Edit 2/12/2011 -  If you find that your clay seems "rubbery" instead of smooth and creamy, you may need to use a different brand of joint compound. They all make their products using different formulas. Most of them work, but if you find one that doesn't, please let us know. ]

Making Your Paper Mache Clay

Tools:

You’ll also need a large bowl, (use one with high sides so you don’t splatter clay on your cupboards), an electric mixer, a measuring cup and a tablespoon measure. To keep t he finished clay from drying out, you’ll need an air-tight container. The recipe makes approximately 1 quart of paper mache clay.

Note about Toilet Paper:

Unfortunately, the people who make toilet paper don’t expect us to turn their product into great works of art, so they see no reason to include the kind of information that would make things a lot easier for us.

I use a brand called “Angel Soft,” in the “regular” 2-ply rolls. I buy it at my local Wal-Mart. Each roll contains approximately 1 1/4 cup of paper, which I measured by wetting the paper, squeezing out the water, and then firmly squishing it into a measuring cup.

Since brands differ so much, the first time you make this recipe you should take a few minutes to find out how much paper is in the first roll. Then adjust the recipe if your brand don’t contain about 1 1/4 cup of paper. Fortunately, this is not a chemistry experiment or rocket science – if your mixture contains a little more paper than mine, or a little less, your sculptures will still be stunning.

Step 1. Fill a high-sided bowl with warm water. Remove the toilet paper from the roll and throw it into the water. Push down on the paper to make sure all of it gets wet.

Step 2. Then pick up the paper and squeeze out as much water as you can. Pour the water out of the bowl and put your paper mass back in.

Step 3. You will want to break the paper into chunks about 1″ across. This will allow your mixer to move around the pieces and break them apart.

Step 4. Add all the ingredients to the bowl and mix, using an electric mixer. The mixer will pull the fibers of the toilet paper apart and turn it into pulp. Continue to mix for at least 3 minutes to make sure all the paper has been mixed in with the other ingredients. If you still see some lumps, use a fork or your fingers (with the mixer turned off!) to break them apart, and then mix some more.

Your paper mache clay is now ready to use. It will look a bit like cookie dough – but don’t eat it!

If you don’t plan to use your clay right away, place it in an airtight container to keep it from drying out. The clay should stay usable for 5 days or more, if you keep it covered. The recipe makes about 1 quart.

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3,490 Responses

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  1. Lynda
    Lynda at |

    Hi Jonni,

    I can’t wait to try this with my children, but I will make sure there is enough clay for me too!

    My only question is about using the electric mixer. Does it wreck the mixer and would you recommend having a mixer just for mixing the clay?

    Thanks.

    Lynda

    Reply
  2. SS
    SS at |

    Hi!

    This looks really interesting, just what I was looking for to make a craft project I have in mind.
    The joint compound is called “sparkel masse” in norwegian, btw. And looks like it’s normal glue for wood you use as the pva glue..?
    Can’t wait to try this out, thanks for sharing the recipe! :)

    Reply
  3. Sutatcha
    Sutatcha at |

    hi jonni, i am a kindergarten teacher in Thailand who finds new material for my little children. I tried to mix your recipe with the ingredients i can find around my place. I found wall putty instead of joint compound and it dosen’t say anything about its ingredient, i am not sure about it but just try once. The first time of mixing recipe, i followed your measure, and the result is too wet clay, it may be due to the pulp may contain some water and my local wall putty may contain more liquid ingredients like acrylic or latex. So i try once again with the rest of my ingredients, i use wall putty only 1/2 of cup and i squeeze the pulp with cloth mostly dried. its texture more sticky and looks like dough. i tried sculpt it as a small elephant, oh it works. Even it is not smooth like yours but little children may like it. And i wonder, does the softness of tissue paper affect to the pulp? I used the almost bad one and its texture dose not smooth.
    thank you for your recipe, and thank you for your kindness too.

    Reply
    1. Nightseekers Art 3D Animation
      Nightseekers Art 3D Animation at |

      SAFETY FEATURES
      Kindly refer to the MSDS for Asian Paints Asian Wall Putty which gives detailed information on safety measures while handling the paint.
      KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN AND AWAY FROM FOOD, DRINK
      May be harmful if swallowed. In case of ingestion seek immediate medical attention.
      Wear eye protection during application. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
      In case of skin contact immediately wash skin with soap and plenty of water. Get medical attention if irritation develops or persists.
      It is recommended to wear suitable nose pad during sanding and surface preparation to avoid dust inhalation
      Do not pour leftover paint down the drain or in water courses.
      In the event of spills, contain spillage using sand or earth.
      Safety Data Sheet available on request.
      No added Lead, Mercury or Chromium compounds

      P.S. For Jonni: please let Leeann know that our research on biocides in Joint Compound are almost complete.

      Reply
  4. Christine
    Christine at |

    Can I use this paper mache clay recipe, applied onto a balloon. Do I have to put a release agent onto the balloon so that the paper mache does not stick?
    Please advise. Thank you.

    Reply
  5. Thalia
    Thalia at |

    The “rubbering” wit certain brands of joint compound (which is called “gipsplaatvuller” in Dutch, not “voegenmiddel”!) Is caused by a process called “cross-linking” between pvaglue and, most likely, borax. You can actually make silly putty this way!

    Reply
  6. Mort Johnson
    Mort Johnson at |

    I love this material, I used it to make a great Halloween costume last year. I was hoping I could have your permission to share this recipe and your site on my new YouTube show, “No Budget Animator’s Guide.” I would like to feature it as a cheep and effective medium for building miniature film sets, props, and characters and share my own experience working with it. With permission I would also like to share pictures from your site to show off what else can be achieved with it. I would of course give you the credit for creating it and refer viewers to your site.
    Thanks for sharing and hope to hear from you soon!

    Reply
  7. Amy
    Amy at |

    Hi! I am really enjoying your site. I am a newbie to paper mache and I was wondering about the linseed oil. I have boiled linseed oil here at the house. Is this the same or is it different? Thank you.

    Reply
    1. Amy
      Amy at |

      Great! Thank you for the info… Happy Sculpting! :-)

      Reply
  8. Fenna
    Fenna at |

    A “friend” of mine wants to warn artists with long hair: if you tend to lose track of time while working, braid your hair or use a showercap. Serously. Unless you dont mind having to sneak to the hairdresser under the cover of darkness to salvage what they can. -_-;

    Reply
  9. LeeAnn
    LeeAnn at |

    Hi Jonni! I just wanted to drop you a note, and say that I think you should probably put a visible warning in the text of this article about not using DAP. I might be a dying breed of person, but I can read articles much faster than I can watch videos, so I went out and got all my supplies before ever watching either of the videos. Needless to say, the DAP version I made was horrible, and looked like some sort of mutant paper mache with skin disease. Haha! Don’t get me wrong, I added a bunch of flour and more paper mush until it was workable. It’s very hard, and durable, but it’s just insanely bumpy, and would not sand down without a great deal of effort. Far more effort than it was worth, for the project I had in mind. So, I came back and watched the video, wondering what I did wrong, and saw that you mentioned not using DAP in the sequel. So, yeah… please put it in the text of the article for us speed-readers, who prefer to read information, okay? :)

    Reply
    1. Nightseekers Art 3d Computer Art
      Nightseekers Art 3d Computer Art at |

      Perhaps she should mention biocides, as well, in all joint compound products but of course there are warning labels about that on the back of every container.

      Reply
      1. LeeAnn
        LeeAnn at |

        First of all, it’s rude to hijack comments. Second, in an effort to dissuade people from being alarmist, I spent my morning doing quite a lot of research about what you’re saying. The biocides contained in Proform, the joint compound which is recommended here by Jonni, is composed of a variety of crushed rocks and minerals, PVA glue and EVA glue. I then looked up biocides, and read about which substances were likely to be in any given joint compound. Not only did I look up the MSDS for joint compound, I also visited the DOW chemical webpage to read about the biocides in question. First of all, the primary component of biocides, is a chemical which is abbreviated as CTAC. This was approved as a FOOD preservative back in the 60’s, and has become more and more used in different things since that time. It composes about 70% of the biocide. The next largest component was just.. baking soda.

        Second of all, the suggested use for biocides in joint compound is around 500 ppm. Five hundred parts per million. That’s 0.05%. The acute toxicity of the biocide in rats, was around 1000- 2000 mg/ kg. Since one kilogram is 1 million milligrams, the math here is very easy: There are 500 miligrams in a kilogram of joint compound.

        You would have to eat double your body weight, possibly up to QUADRUPLE your body weight in joint compound, in a very short period of time, to achieve acute toxicity.

        Reply
        1. WoB2
          WoB2 at |

          LeeAnn,
          We have been trying to post a response but it keeps getting deleted.

          Reply
  10. Emily
    Emily at |

    Hi Jonni,

    I was only able to find “Sheetrock” brand Patch and Repair compound, and it is pre-mixed. Do you know if this would also work? Thanks so much!!

    Reply
  11. Sophie Allan
    Sophie Allan at |

    photo

    Reply
    1. Sophie Allan
      Sophie Allan at |

      Photo two

      Reply
  12. Sophie Allan
    Sophie Allan at |

    Hi and thank you for your great recipe.
    I have made birds with my first two batches and have sold them all already!
    (The jointing compound in New Zealand is called Jib Stop, it comes in different setting times and hardness I have used the the soft, quick set called +4 )
    First batch was perfect, second and now third batch is too wet but I have added heaps more flour to the mix. Seems to work fine.
    I have also discovered that the clay can be frozen in batches in zip lock bags. (If you smooth it out thin in the bag it defrosts quickly when you need it.)

    Reply
  13. thalia
    thalia at |

    I’m quite surprised about your warnings concerning wallpaper paste. In my country (Netherlands), it is considered harmless and even safe for small children to eat (except when still powder because it could swell up in their stomach). It makes me wonder what sort of creepy stuff is added to American wallpaper paste that is banned over here. We don’t have fungus issues either, so maybe we use a safer kind of fungicide? That would explain why wallpaper paste is so much more expensive here.

    Reply
  14. Cindy
    Cindy at |

    Can Elmers wood glue be used instead of Elmers Glue All for the paper mache clay?

    Reply
    1. Jo Blackburn
      Jo Blackburn at |

      I love paper Mache’ as a medium!! I have used wood glue but never joint compound in my mix. I have made 30some mask and sculptures and have added all sorts of things to see what happens…coffee grounds and saw dust for example. Happy creating!

      Reply
  15. Melanie Blood
    Melanie Blood at |

    Hello!
    I am a high school art teacher and I am interested in making hand puppets. I was going to have the students make the heads out of paper mache clay, but am not sure how I should have them construct the base of the head before the clay mache is added. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated! Also, your website is wonderful, thank you for all of the time you put into posting information!
    Kindly,
    Melanie

    Reply
  16. Finn Soerensen
    Finn Soerensen at |

    Hi Jonny Good. I have seen your video abaut paperclay and how you mix it. Here in Denmark i think ve didn now what Joint Compound is. Can you maybe specifay for mee what i shal by in the store? I hope you can take the time. Many thanks for interesting videos.
    Friendly Finn

    Reply
  17. pamela
    pamela at |

    Im making a mermaid tail, I already shaped the tail from wire, can this product be used instead of paper mache? And can items like trash, ex lids plastic found beach trash be embeded into this clay? Thanks for your help!

    Reply
  18. Jessie
    Jessie at |

    Hi, I read online that joint compound is considered toxic in some places? My parents won’t let me use it now but your clay looks so amazing and I really want to finish my sculpture. Is there any substitutes you would recommend?

    Reply
    1. Nightseekers Art 3d Computer Art
      Nightseekers Art 3d Computer Art at |

      It is considered toxic in all places. It contains biocides. Alternatives? Just mix damp newspaper with Elmer’s glue (a cup) and there you have it. Wear gloves. Elmer’s glue is considered non toxic but that is questionable as well. Anyway, all you need to do is look into it yourself by reading the MSDS reports.

      Reply
  19. Amanda
    Amanda at |

    Hi Jonni,
    I am making a 10 ft tree for my Sunday school classroom inspired by the Rainforest cafe trees, and I haven’t done any type of paper mache in over 20 years and not much of it then. Do you have any sugestions on how to make the large branches or any tips of what not to do when working with a project that big?
    Lots of thanks,
    Amanda

    Reply
  20. Debbie Amott
    Debbie Amott at |

    Hi Jonni

    I am part of a team competing in a scavenger hunt, called GISHWHES, run by Misha Collins

    https://www.gishwhes.com/

    Part of the hunt includes the following:

    “As you well know, all the actors who work on the CW network collect hand-painted paper-mache models of their own heads. Get one of these actors to post a photo on Twitter or FB of them holding your team’s painted paper-mache creation of their likeness. (I understand that what I just wrote was grammatically cumbersome. If you have a hard time understanding what I just wrote, don’t be hard on yourself, you’re not the only one. Join a support group. Just to be clear the image with the celebrity is the GISHWHES item here, not the support group. The support group is just for you.)”

    Please can you give any advice to help make a paper mache head of an actor, that will be complete and transportable by the end of the week. PS I’m in the UK and would need to get the head to the US somehow. Unless you can actually assist in the making of the head too.

    Any help great or small would be much appreciated.

    Debbie

    Reply
    1. Ruth Warobick
      Ruth Warobick at |

      I just wanted you to know that my 10 year old granddaughter and I are huge fans! Your contact info says you read all of the comments so I chose this spot to share our project. :-)

      We had tried the “clay” as a project with her friends recently and they had fun. When it was time for her to do her poster for her end of summer 5th grade book report she insisted that Gramma had to help her with it and use the clay! I’m going to attempt to post the picture.

      The book was “Turtle in Paradise” and the girl who is named Turtle is all Jonni clay, 3-D but flat on the back. She knew exactly what she wanted to do and we actually used additional flour so we could roll the girl’s dress pieces out like dough. We reinforced the “joints” with hot glue and glued them to the board also so they woudl be stable on the poster. The website only lets me upload one pic so I’ll use the close-up of the girl not the whole poster. She is holding a treasure map. Not sure how durable it will be as I forgot to spray it with polyurethane before we adhered it, but it shouldn’t have to withstand rough treatment or weather anyway! I also used my dehydrator (has a temp control) to speed up drying.

      Thank you Jonni for giving us fun easy ways to make memories! Her dad’s comment was “Wow, a little over-achieving, but awesome!” ;-)
      Gramma Ruth

      Reply
  21. Tania
    Tania at |

    Hi Jonni

    Loving your tutorials. I am always using your site for tips. I am going to try you new silky smooth clay and was wondering if applied over a paper mache base would it shrink much. I am using Das air dry clay at the moment, which works pretty well. Also would this recipe give a tougher finish than Das air dry.

    Reply
  22. Linda Higgins
    Linda Higgins at |

    Hi, Jonni,
    I am having trouble finding a pre-mixed joint compound that isn’t the Dap brand. Can you tell me some particular brand names that will work for this. I bought one thing of pro form all purpose ready mixed joint compound. I haven’t tried it yet, Most of the stores in my area only carry Dap, the pro form was from Walmart. I’ll try some more stores next week end, but I wanted to try making some paper mache clay this week.

    Reply
  23. Noah
    Noah at |

    Jonni,

    I love your site! You’ve inspired me to start incorporating paper mache back into my projects, I’m really excited to use the paper mache clay recipe.

    I haven’t been able to find any information on drying time with this clay though, what would you say is the approximate drying time for a 1/8″ layer (and also for a 1/4″ layer)? I know in paper mache there is only approximations in drying time given different climates, but I want to make sure I’m not over eager and move onto my next step when it’s not quite ready.

    Thank you,

    Noah

    Reply
  24. Edden Bargai
    Edden Bargai at |

    Hi Jonni,
    I wanted to know if it will be OK (or whether it would work), when making an armature for a pretty small paper mache clay dog, to use crumpled newspaper instead of aluminum foil on the cardboard, to give it the volume (to make it 3d)?
    Thanks,
    Edden

    Reply
  25. Halcyon Serenade
    Halcyon Serenade at |

    I’m looking to possibly take commissions for sculptures, since I’ve recently found faux-ing surfaces great fun, and being able to make sculptures fit to be placed in gardens or other aesthetic locations outdoors would help me serve a larger audience. I recently read your article about using yacht varnish to waterproof paper mache, but that it would require yearly maintenance to be safe. Re-coating their new sculpture every year wouldn’t make the buyers very happy, so I’m wondering if the paper mache clay yields different results compared to “normal” paper mache. I was prepared to do experiments myself (with a humid climate with occasional heavy rainfall AND blistering summer temperatures, I figured my home was a great candidate for weather stress testing) when I saw your article–and Jackie Hall’s linked article–about waterproofing and wondered if you’ve tried Jackie’s suggestion with your paper mache clay recipe.

    Reply
  26. Corrina Waggy
    Corrina Waggy at |

    I am a biology teacher and I am looking for a better way to teach anatomy than coloring books, line drawings, and animal dissections. I am thinking of having my students learn the skeletal system but sculpting their own and turning it into a miniature skeleton, labeled. Then add organs as we study each system. I am planning on trying this out this summer. I have a couple questions for you: 1. How big of a sculpture can be made with a one quart batch of this clay and 2. Can it be colored with food coloring for each organ system?
    I really was excited when I stumbled across your site! Thanks

    Reply
    1. Halcyon Serenade
      Halcyon Serenade at |

      If each student is making their own miniature skeleton, Jonni has an air-dry clay recipe that would probably be better suited to that purpose. The paper mache clay is better suited to being applied in a thin layer on top of previously-made armatures, often made of crumpled paper taped up in just the right shape, and getting just the right shapes that way might be difficult to manage with a classroom of students. The air-dry clay functions much closer to modeling clay, but like the paper mache clay, is much cheaper than buying actual modeling clay at the store.

      I am a huge fan of creative teaching and would’ve loved to do this in a Biology class, so I’d love to help any way I can to make such a project succeed. Hope it works out!

      Reply
  27. Sylvanna
    Sylvanna at |

    Hi Jonni,
    I just tried to make the paper mache clay for the first time and it was a bit of a disaster! I found myself mixing forever and ending up with a very dry crumbly mixture that just didn’t bind together. In saying that the mixers were wrapped in a smoother mixture but was quite stretchy and not spreadable. What could I be doing wrong?!?
    Sylvanna

    Reply
  28. Fred
    Fred at |

    Hi Jonni, thank you for this nice website. That paper maché technique looks very efficient! :)

    I had a question about its resistance to shocks… With a couple friends we are planning to create a little mini golf course and I was wondering if I could sculpt the volcano in it with that paper maché! The volcano would be the victim of golf ball hits, do you think this material is strong enough for that or would it crack / break?

    Thank you!

    -Fred

    Reply
  29. lisa
    lisa at |

    What type of mineral oilbdo I use? And where do I get it?

    Reply
  30. Edden Bargai
    Edden Bargai at |

    I just finished making a very big batch of paper mache clay (about 7 cups of paper with the other ingredients’ amounts adjusted properly). Since it was such a large amount, I didn’t want to use my kitchen mixer, and don’t have another one, I kneaded it by hand for about 5-7 minutes and it came out wonderful!
    Edden

    Reply
  31. Anjali
    Anjali at |

    I made the clay..nd it worked out for me…!!! :) I m from India….it just took me 10-15 minutes to make the clay…!!!…Thanks a lot!!!…

    Reply
  32. Edden Bargai
    Edden Bargai at |

    I used this recipe with all the ingredients, only that I used recycled white paper that I shredded, soaked it in warm water for 1 day. It worked totally fine! The one thing was, that to my taste the flower measurement in the recipe wasn’t firm enough and was making my mixer “tired”, so I added more flower (honestly I didn’t measure) and kneaded it by hand on the counter.

    Reply
  33. Viva
    Viva at |

    Hello – just wanted to share – my kitchen is a disaster but my daughter and I are having a blast with your pm clay! The possibilities are endless. I didn’t like the ridges left on one side when I used a cooling rack is now I dry each piece on a square of wax paper – it peels off gently without disturbing the clay after one side has dried. I wanted to ask about one of your mixtures where you used insulation and joint compound. I rushed out and purchased a big square of insulation but now I can not locate the recipe. I wonder if your toilet paper recipe took its place. I can’t tell you how much I’ve enjoyed your videos – my 7-yr old has become really creative..

    Reply
  34. Jim Harris
    Jim Harris at |

    Hello Jonni, love your work!

    At some point you discussed a metal application on a bird that was metallic to the point it developed a patina. I’ve looked it up but forgot where it is.
    Thanks-Help,
    Jim

    Reply
  35. Goddess’s Harp | The Hylian Home

    […] Glue it to your base. Mix papier maché clay (instructions on this amazing site) and make your basic bulk on one side. It doesn’t have to (and won’t) look […]

  36. Sondrake
    Sondrake at |

    Here they are! Barf and Belch from How to train your dragon 2! I had a few issues with the necks (probably could have made them thicker) but people can sit on it and it’s holding up well!

    Reply
  37. Stephanie
    Stephanie at |

    Hi Jonni,

    I so enjoy your recipes, patient instruction, and creative encouragement!! I have started a project that I am thinking I need a better route. To get to my inquiry, are there any alterations to a/your paper clay recipe that would allow for a 1/2 inch thickness and stand alone? I purchased some cookie cutters to use as stencils to trace on cardboard to make paper mache refrigerator magnets. The minor details to the shapes were lost quickly, which made me think- why couldn’t I just make a roll-out paper clay and actually use the cookie cutters in the way they are intended? I have watched your recipe videos, and it looks like the closet thing you have posted is the link in your discussion about kid-safe clay, and someone else’s paper + clay how-to video. That might just work, but they didn’t give much instruction as to how to dry, sand, paint, etc. Any help would be much appreciated!

    Reply
  38. annette
    annette at |

    Can scraps from other paper projects be used in place of toilet paper in this recipe? If so, what treatment is necessary to create appropriate pulp from rescued paper scraps? I’d love to use this recipe, but I really want to recycle my paper waste rather than buy tp. Thanks!

    Reply
  39. sara
    sara at |

    Sorry for poor computer skills. Thank you jonni. Any tips for casting paper mache or paper clay or celluclay inside a plaster hand mold will be appreciated. So, I made a plaster mold to be cast.

    Reply
  40. sara
    sara at |

    I have ruined many plasteline heads making plaster molds. So much detail in those molds, only to be ruined, in celluclay paper castings that stuck to those molds. Any tips would be so appreciated.

    Reply

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